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Since overall fitness levels are highest in regions of Corpora where levels of computer ownership are also highest, it is clear that using computers has not made citizens less physically fit. The following appeared in a memorandum from the owner of Movies Galore, a chain of movie-rental stores.

Raising prices is not a good option, since we are famous for our low prices. Instead, we should reduce our operating hours. Last month our store in downtown Marston reduced its hours by closing at 6: Since we have received very few customer complaints about these new policies, we should now adopt them at all other Movies Galore stores as our best strategies for improving profits.

Another advantage is that housing costs in Clearview have fallen significantly during the past year, and taxes remain lower than those in neighboring towns. And best of all, retirees in Clearview can also expect excellent health care as they grow older, since the number of physicians in the area is far greater than the national average.

During the same year, Omni showed a significant decrease from prior years in expenditures for dormitory and classroom space, most likely because online instruction takes place via the Internet. In contrast, over the past three years, enrollment at Humana University has failed to grow and the cost of maintaining buildings has increased.

Thus, to increase enrollment and solve the problem of budget deficits at Humana University, we should initiate and actively promote online degree programs like those at Omni. An ancient, traditional remedy for insomnia—the scent of lavender flowers—has now been proved effective. In a recent study, 30 volunteers with chronic insomnia slept each night for three weeks on lavender-scented pillows in a controlled room where their sleep was monitored electronically.

During the first week, volunteers continued to take their usual sleeping medication. They slept soundly but wakened feeling tired. At the beginning of the second week, the volunteers discontinued their sleeping medication. During that week, they slept less soundly than the previous week and felt even more tired. During the third week, the volunteers slept longer and more soundly than in the previous two weeks.

Therefore, the study proves that lavender cures insomnia within a short period of time. Only about 2 percent of customers have complained, indicating that 98 people out of are happy with the change. Thus, to avoid the expense of purchasing butter and to increase profitability, the Happy Pancake House should extend this cost-saving change to its restaurants in the southeast and northeast as well.

The following appeared in a letter from the owner of the Sunnyside Towers apartment building to its manager. Clearly, restricting water flow throughout all the twenty floors of Sunnyside Towers will increase our profits further.

Their responses to a recent survey show that in their eating habits they conform more closely to government nutritional recommendations than they did ten years ago.

Furthermore, there has been a fourfold increase in sales of food products containing kiran, a substance that a scientific study has shown reduces cholesterol. This trend is also evident in reduced sales of sulia, a food that few of the most healthy citizens regularly eat. Humans arrived in the Kaliko Islands about 7, years ago, and within 3, years most of the large mammal species that had lived in the forests of the Kaliko Islands had become extinct.

Further, archaeologists have discovered numerous sites where the bones of fish had been discarded, but they found no such areas containing the bones of large mammals, so the humans cannot have hunted the mammals. The survey asked video-game players what features they thought were most important in a video game.

According to the survey, players prefer games that provide lifelike graphics, which require the most up-to-date computers. Whirlwind has just introduced several such games with an extensive advertising campaign directed at people ten to twenty-five years old, the age-group most likely to play video games. It follows, then, that the sales of Whirlwind video games are likely to increase dramatically in the next few months.

These findings suggest that we can increase our profits by discontinuing use of the Endure manufacturing process. Employees who use the Internet inappropriately from their workstations need to be identified and punished if we are to reduce the number of work hours spent on personal or recreational activities, such as shopping or playing games. It will foster a better work ethic at Climpson and improve our overall profits.

The following appeared in a memo from the president of Bower Builders, a company that constructs new homes. A number of homes in our area built by our competitor Domus Construction have such features and have sold much faster and at significantly higher prices than the national average. To boost sales and profits, we should increase the size of the family rooms and kitchens in all the homes we build and should make state-of-the-art kitchens a standard feature.

Moreover, our larger family rooms and kitchens can come at the expense of the dining room, since many of our recent buyers say they do not need a separate dining room for family meals. Last heating season that region experienced 90 days with below-normal temperatures, and climate forecasters predict that this weather pattern will continue for several more years.

Furthermore, many new homes are being built in the region in response to recent population growth. Because of these trends, we predict an increased demand for heating oil and recommend investment in Consolidated Industries, one of whose major business operations is the retail sale of home heating oil. The symphony has also announced an increase in ticket prices for next year. During a subsequent test of UltraClean at our hospital in Workby, that hospital reported significantly fewer cases of patient infection than did any of the other hospitals in our group.

Therefore, to prevent serious patient infections, we should supply UltraClean at all hand-washing stations throughout our hospital system. When interviewed for a recent study, youth-league soccer players in several major cities also reported psychological pressure exerted by coaches and parents to win games. Furthermore, education experts say that long practice sessions for these sports take away time that could be used for academic activities. Since the disadvantages outweigh any advantages, we in Parkville should discontinue organized athletic competition for children under nine.

Collectors prize the ancient life-size clay statues of human figures made on Kali Island but have long wondered how Kalinese artists were able to depict bodies with such realistic precision. Since archaeologists have recently discovered molds of human heads and hands on Kali, we can now conclude that the ancient Kalinese artists used molds of actual bodies, not sculpting tools and techniques, to create these statues. This discovery explains why Kalinese miniature statues were abstract and entirely different in style: It also explains why few ancient Kalinese sculpting tools have been found.

In light of this discovery, collectors predict that the life-size sculptures will decrease in value while the miniatures increase in value. When Stanley Park first opened, it was the largest, most heavily used public park in town. It is still the largest park, but it is no longer heavily used. In contrast, tiny Carlton Park in the heart of the business district is visited by more than people on a typical weekday.

An obvious difference is that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park, provides ample seating. Thus, if Stanley Park is ever to be as popular with our citizens as Carlton Park, the town will obviously need to provide more benches, thereby converting some of the unused open areas into spaces suitable for socializing. The following appeared in a memo from the owner of a chain of cheese stores located throughout the United States.

Last year, however, all of the five best-selling cheeses at our newest store were domestic cheddar cheeses from Wisconsin. Furthermore, a recent survey by Cheeses of the World magazine indicates an increasing preference for domestic cheeses among its subscribers. Since our company can reduce expenses by limiting inventory, the best way to improve profits in all of our stores is to discontinue stocking many of our varieties of imported cheese and concentrate primarily on domestic cheeses.

The following appeared as part of a business plan developed by the manager of the Rialto Movie Theater. It should follow the example of the new Apex Theater in the mall outside of town. When the Apex opened last year, it featured a video arcade, plush carpeting and seats, and a state-of-the-art sound system.

Furthermore, in a recent survey, over 85 percent of respondents reported that the high price of newly released movies prevents them from going to the movies more than five times per year. Thus, if the Rialto intends to hold on to its share of a decreasing pool of moviegoers, it must offer the same features as Apex. A recent study reported that pet owners have longer, healthier lives on average than do people who own no pets. Specifically, dog owners tend to have a lower incidence of heart disease.

In light of these findings, Sherwood Hospital should form a partnership with Sherwood Animal Shelter to institute an adopt-a-dog program. As a further benefit, the publicity about the program would encourage more people to adopt pets from the shelter. And that will reduce the incidence of heart disease in the general population.

The buildings were erected by different construction companies—Alpha and Zeta. Although the two buildings had identical floor plans, the building constructed by Zeta cost 30 percent more to build. In addition, the energy consumption of the Zeta building has been lower than that of the Alpha building every year since its construction.

Furthermore, the energy consumption of the Zeta building has been lower than that of the Alpha building every year since its construction. Although just three years ago a state traffic survey showed that the typical driving commuter took 20 minutes to get to work, the commute now takes closer to 40 minutes, according to the survey just completed. Members of the town council already have suggested more road building to address the problem, but as well as being expensive, the new construction will surely disrupt some of our residential neighborhoods.

It would be better to follow the example of the nearby city of Garville. Last year Garville implemented a policy that rewards people who share rides to work, giving them coupons for free gas. Pollution levels in Garville have dropped since the policy was implemented, and people from Garville tell me that commuting times have fallen considerably.

But this claim is undermined by a recent report on the Elthyrian economy, which found that since far more jobs have been created than have been eliminated, bringing the unemployment rate in Elthyria to its lowest level in decades.

Moreover, two-thirds of these newly created jobs have been in industries that tend to pay above-average wages, and the vast majority of these jobs are full-time. First of all, the Mozart School welcomes youngsters at all ability and age levels; there is no audition to attend the school.

Second, the school offers instruction in nearly all musical instruments as well a wide range of styles and genres from classical to rock. Third, the faculty includes some of the most distinguished musicians in the area. Finally, many Mozart graduates have gone on to become well-known and highly paid professional musicians. The president of Grove College has recommended that the college abandon its century-old tradition of all-female education and begin admitting men.

Pointing to other all-female colleges that experienced an increase in applications after adopting coeducation, the president argues that coeducation would lead to a significant increase in applications and enrollment. However, the director of the alumnae association opposes the plan. The director also points to a survey of Grove alumnae in which a majority of respondents strongly favored keeping the college all female.

To prevent farmers from continuing to receive excessive profits on an apparently increased supply of milk, the Batavia government should begin to regulate retail milk prices. Such regulation is necessary to ensure fair prices for consumers. We therefore advise Old Dairy stockholders to sell their shares, and other investors not to purchase stock in this company. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the advice and the argument on which it is based are reasonable.

Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the advice. The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of a food distribution company with food storage warehouses in several cities. Even though the price charged by Fly-Away is considerably lower, our best means of saving money is to return to Buzzoff for all our pest control services.

Since those issues of Newsbeat magazine that featured political news on their front cover were the poorest-selling issues over the past three years, the publisher of Newsbeat has recommended that the magazine curtail its emphasis on politics to focus more exclusively on economics and personal finance. She points to a recent survey of readers of general interest magazines that indicates greater reader interest in economic issues than in political ones. The following is taken from a memo from the advertising director of the Super Screen Movie Production Company.

And yet the percentage of positive reviews by movie reviewers about specific Super Screen movies actually increased during the past year. Clearly, the contents of these reviews are not reaching enough of our prospective viewers.

Super Screen should therefore allocate a greater share of its budget next year to reaching the public through advertising. Promofoods concluded that the canned tuna did not, after all, pose a health risk.

This conclusion is based on tests performed on samples of the recalled cans by chemists from Promofoods; the chemists found that of the eight food chemicals most commonly blamed for causing symptoms of dizziness and nausea, five were not found in any of the tested cans.

The chemists did find small amounts of the three remaining suspected chemicals but pointed out that these occur naturally in all canned foods. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be addressed in order to decide whether the conclusion and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to the questions would help to evaluate the conclusion. However, in only four species of amphibians were observed in the park, and the numbers of each species were drastically reduced.

There has been a substantial decline in the numbers of amphibians worldwide, and global pollution of water and air is clearly implicated. The decline of amphibians in Xanadu National Park, however, almost certainly has a different cause: In there were seven species of amphibians in the park, and there were abundant numbers of each species.

Trout are known to eat amphibian eggs. In a study of the reading habits of Waymarsh citizens conducted by the University of Waymarsh, most respondents said that they preferred literary classics as reading material. However, a second study conducted by the same researchers found that the type of book most frequently checked out of each of the public libraries in Waymarsh was the mystery novel.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the respondents in the first study had misrepresented their reading habits. Recently, it has been proposed that we use the less expensive Walsh Personnel Firm in place of Delany.

This would be a mistake because eight years ago, when XYZ was using Walsh, only half of the workers we laid off at that time found jobs within a year. Moreover, Delany is clearly superior, as evidenced by its bigger staff and larger number of branch offices. In a study of the reading habits of Waymarsh citizens conducted by the University of Waymarsh, most respondents said they preferred literary classics as reading material.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the respondents in the first study had misrepresented their reading preferences. The following appeared in a memorandum written by the vice president of Health Naturally, a small but expanding chain of stores selling health food and other health-related products. We should therefore build one of our new stores in Plainsville, which clearly has many such residents. Plainsville merchants report that sales of running shoes and exercise equipment are at all-time highs.

The local health club, which nearly closed five years ago due to lack of business, has more members than ever, and the weight-training and aerobics classes are always full. We can even anticipate a new generation of customers: Three years ago, because of flooding at the Western Palean Wildlife Preserve, lions and western gazelles were moved to the East Palean Preserve, an area that is home to most of the same species that are found in the western preserve, though in larger numbers, and to the eastern gazelle, a close relative of the western gazelle.

The only difference in climate is that the eastern preserve typically has slightly less rainfall. Unfortunately, after three years in the eastern preserve, the imported western gazelle population has been virtually eliminated. Since the slight reduction in rainfall cannot be the cause of the virtual elimination of western gazelle, their disappearance must have been caused by the larger number of predators in the eastern preserve.

Workers in the small town of Leeville take fewer sick days than workers in the large city of Masonton, 50 miles away. Moreover, relative to population size, the diagnosis of stress-related illness is proportionally much lower in Leeville than in Masonton.

According to the Leeville Chamber of Commerce, these facts can be attributed to the health benefits of the relatively relaxed pace of life in Leeville. The population growth has resulted mainly from people moving to our area after their retirement, and we must make listeners of these new residents.

But they seem to have limited interest in music: Therefore, just changing to another kind of music is not going to increase our audience. Instead, we should adopt a news-and-talk format, a form of radio that is increasingly popular in our area. Using electronic monitoring software is the best way to reduce the number of hours Climpson employees spend on personal or recreational activities.

Given the outcry from our customers when we discontinued this product and the fact that none of our competitors offers a comparable product, we can expect pent-up consumer demand for our alpaca coats. The following appeared in an e-mail sent by the marketing director of the Classical Shakespeare Theatre of Bardville.

In spite of increased advertising, we are attracting fewer and fewer people to our shows, causing our profits to decrease significantly. We must take action to attract new audience members. Last month, Book and Bean, a combination bookstore and coffee shop, announced its intention to open a Collegeville store.

Also, a number of well-known jazz musicians own homes in Monroe. Nevertheless, the nearest jazz club is over an hour away. There is now evidence that the relaxed pace of life in small towns promotes better health and greater longevity than does the hectic pace of life in big cities.

Businesses in the small town of Leeville report fewer days of sick leave taken by individual workers than do businesses in the nearby large city of Masonton. Furthermore, Leeville has only one physician for its one thousand residents, but in Masonton the proportion of physicians to residents is five times as high. Finally, the average age of Leeville residents is significantly higher than that of Masonton residents.

These findings suggest that people seeking longer and healthier lives should consider moving to small communities. These findings suggest that the relaxed pace of life in Leeville allows residents to live longer, healthier lives. Panoply produces products very similar to those produced at our factory, but its work shifts are one hour shorter than ours.

Experts say that fatigue and sleep deprivation among workers are significant contributing factors in many on-the-job accidents. A recent government study reports that fatigue and sleep deprivation among workers are significant contributing factors in many on-the-job accidents. Therefore, we recommend that Butler Manufacturing shorten each of its work shifts by one hour. Shorter shifts will allow Butler to improve its safety record by ensuring that its employees are adequately rested.

The following appeared in a memo from the business manager of a chain of cheese stores located throughout the United States. Consider, for example, that the number of people in our listening area over fifty years of age has increased dramatically, while our total number of listeners has declined. Also, music stores in our area report decreased sales of recorded music.

Finally, continuous news stations in neighboring cities have been very successful. Also, music stores in our area report decreased sales of rock-and-roll music. We predict that switching KNOW radio from rock-and-roll music to hour news will allow the station to attract older listeners and make KNOW radio more profitable than ever. Since we are famous for our special bargains, raising our rental prices is not a viable way to improve profits. Last month our store in downtown Marston significantly decreased its operating expenses by closing at 6: By implementing similar changes in our other stores, Movies Galore can increase profits without jeopardizing our reputation for offering great movies at low prices.

Therefore, in order to increase profits without jeopardizing our reputation for offering great movies at low prices, we recommend implementing similar changes in our other nine Movies Galore stores. The following is a recommendation from the personnel director to the president of Acme Publishing Company. One graduate of the course was able to read a page report in only two hours; another graduate rose from an assistant manager to vice president of the company in under a year.

Obviously, the faster you can read, the more information you can absorb in a single workday. Included in this fee is a three-week seminar in Spruce City and a lifelong subscription to the Easy Read newsletter. Clearly, to improve productivity, Acme should require all of our employees to take the Easy Read course. The buildings were erected by two different construction companies—Alpha and Zeta. Even though the two buildings had identical floor plans, the building constructed by Zeta cost 30 percent more to build, and its expenses for maintenance last year were twice those of the building constructed by Alpha.

Furthermore, the energy consumption of the Zeta building has been higher than that of the Alpha building every year since its construction. Such data, plus the fact that Alpha has a stable workforce with little employee turnover, indicate that we should use Alpha rather than Zeta for our contemplated new building project. This difference in pest damage is best explained by the negligence of Fly-Away. Of the advertising firms studied, those whose executives reported needing no more than six hours of sleep per night had higher profit margins and faster growth.

On the basis of this study, we recommend that businesses hire only people who need less than six hours of sleep per night.

Evidence suggests that academic honor codes, which call for students to agree not to cheat in their academic endeavors and to notify a faculty member if they suspect that others have cheated, are far more successful than are other methods at deterring cheating among students at colleges and universities.

Several years ago, Groveton College adopted such a code and discontinued its old-fashioned system in which teachers closely monitored students.

Under the old system, teachers reported an average of thirty cases of cheating per year. Several years ago, Groveton College adopted an honor code, which calls for students to agree not to cheat in their academic endeavors and to notify a faculty member if they suspect that others have cheated. Under that system, teachers reported an average of thirty cases of cheating per year. The honor code has proven far more successful: This change is sure to result in a dramatic decline in cheating among college students.

During our recent test of regular-strength UltraClean with doctors, nurses, and visitors at our hospital in Worktown, the hospital reported significantly fewer cases of patient infection a 20 percent reduction than did any of the other hospitals in our group.

Therefore, to prevent serious patient infections, we should supply UltraClean at all hand-washing stations, including those used by visitors, throughout our hospital system. The explanation for the 20 percent reduction in patient infections is the use of UltraClean soap. Another study, however, suggests that during the same ten-year period, the number of accidents caused by bicycling has increased percent.

Thus, there is clearly a call for the government to strive to reduce the number of serious injuries from bicycle accidents by launching an education program that concentrates on the factors other than helmet use that are necessary for bicycle safety. Thus there is clearly a call for the government to strive to reduce the number of serious injuries from bicycle accidents by launching an education program that concentrates on the factors other than helmet use that are necessary for bicycle safety.

Clearly, Acme would benefit greatly by requiring all of our employees to take the Easy Read course. Clearly, to improve overall productivity, Acme should require all of our employees to take the Easy Read course.

Clearly, modifying showerheads to restrict water flow throughout all twelve buildings in the Sunnyside Towers complex will increase our profits further. Only about 2 percent of customers have filed a formal complaint, indicating that an average of 98 people out of are happy with the change. Thus, to avoid the expense of purchasing butter, the Happy Pancake House should extend this cost-saving change to its restaurants throughout the rest of the country.

Only about 2 percent of customers have complained, indicating that an average of 98 people out of are happy with the change. Thus, we predict that Happy Pancake House will be able to increase profits dramatically if we extend this cost-saving change to all our restaurants in the southeast and northeast as well.

In the past two years, several accidents in and around Centerville have involved teenage drivers. Since a number of parents in Centerville have complained that they are too busy to teach their teenagers to drive, some other instruction is necessary to ensure that these teenagers are safe drivers.

Although there are two driving schools in Centerville, parents on a tight budget cannot afford to pay for driving instruction. Therefore an effective and mandatory program sponsored by the high school is the only solution to this serious problem. The data from a survey of high school math and science teachers show that in the district of Sanlee many of these teachers reported assigning daily homework, whereas in the district of Marlee, most science and math teachers reported assigning homework no more than two or three days per week.

Despite receiving less frequent homework assignments, Marlee students earn better grades overall and are less likely to be required to repeat a year of school than are students in Sanlee.

These results call into question the usefulness of frequent homework assignments. Most likely the Marlee students have more time to concentrate on individual assignments than do the Sanlee students who have homework every day. Therefore teachers in our high schools should assign homework no more than twice a week.

While the Department of Education in the state of Attra recommends that high school students be assigned homework every day, the data from a recent statewide survey of high school math and science teachers give us reason to question the usefulness of daily homework.

In the district of Sanlee, 86 percent of the teachers reported assigning homework three to five times a week, whereas in the district of Marlee, less than 25 percent of the teachers reported assigning homework three to five times a week. Yet the students in Marlee earn better grades overall and are less likely to be required to repeat a year of school than are the students in Sanlee.

Therefore, all teachers in our high schools should assign homework no more than twice a week. Moreover, in a recent survey conducted by the Groveton honor council, a majority of students said that they would be less likely to cheat with an honor code in place than without.

By doing so, we can prevent a city budget deficit without threatening the success of the symphony. While the Department of Education in the state of Attra suggests that high school students be assigned homework every day, the data from a recent statewide survey of high school math and science teachers give us reason to question the usefulness of daily homework.

Therefore, we recommend that all teachers in our high schools should assign homework no more than twice a week. Last year the symphony hired an internationally known conductor, who has been able to attract high-profile guest musicians to perform with the symphony. Now that the Grandview Symphony is an established success, it can raise ticket prices.

Increased revenue from larger audiences and higher ticket prices will enable the symphony to succeed without funding from the city government. Hospital statistics regarding people who go to the emergency room after roller-skating accidents indicate the need for more protective equipment.

Within that group of people, 75 percent of those who had accidents in streets or parking lots had not been wearing any protective clothing helmets, knee pads, etc. Clearly, the statistics indicate that by investing in high-quality protective gear and reflective equipment, roller skaters will greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured in an accident.

Two years ago, the symphony hired an internationally known conductor, who has been able to attract high-profile guest musicians to perform with the symphony. Now that the symphony has succeeded in finding an audience, the city can eliminate its funding of the symphony. The citizens of Forsythe have adopted more healthful lifestyles.

This trend is also evident in reduced sales of sulia, a food that few of the healthiest citizens regularly eat. The following appeared in a memo to the board of directors of a company that specializes in the delivery of heating oil. Last heating season, that region experienced 90 days with below-normal temperatures, and climate forecasters predict that this weather pattern will continue for several more years.

Because of these trends, we can safely predict that this region will experience an increased demand for heating oil during the next five years. It is true that a majority of faculty members voted in favor of coeducation, arguing that it would encourage more students to apply to Grove. But 80 percent of the students responding to a survey conducted by the student government wanted the school to remain all female, and over half of the alumnae who answered a separate survey also opposed coeducation.

Keeping the college all female will improve morale among students and convince alumnae to keep supporting the college financially. Last year that region experienced 90 days with below-average temperatures, and climate forecasters at Waymarsh University predict that this weather pattern will continue for several more years. Bogard writes about the benefits that natural darkness actually produces. In the article he talks about how darkens actually helps the body produce a hormone that keeps certain cancers from developing.

He also includes how darkness helps and is neccessary for certain animals. These examples will help his audience see that he is arguing for some benefical for people. This also helps appeal to an audience that might not care for the beauty of darkness but care for their own personal health. Bogard uses different features in order to persuade his audience. The different features also help him in appealing to a broader audience.

This response demonstrates effective understanding of the passage, with increasing evidence as the response continues. In the next paragraph, the writer cites and discusses a generational claim that Bogard makes, again demonstrating comprehension.

Nevertheless, in this example and others like it in the response, the writer exhibits effective analysis of the source text using relevant and sufficient support. This essay is mostly cohesive and demonstrates mostly effective control of language. The essay then follows a clear, if formulaic, format.

Sentence structure is varied, and some precise phrasing is used to convey ideas robbed of the oppurtunity , their own personal health. Language control on the whole is good, although there are a few minor errors These examples will help his audience see that he is arguing for some benefical for people that do not detract materially from the quality of writing. Overall, the response demonstrates proficient writing. Paul Bogard strongly believes that natural darkness should be preserved.

In order to prove the need for natural darkness, Bogard divides his argument into three main topics, saying that natural darkness is beneficial to humans, essential to humans, and essential to ecosystems. According to Bogard, natural darkness can be a positive help to humans.

One of the ways it can accomplish this is by giving enjoyment to onlookers. To supplant this, Bogard gives a personal example of how he enjoyed seeing meteors dart across the night sky in Minnesota as a child.

Also he states that natural darkness can be a source of solitude. Supporting this claim, Bogard states that darkness is invaluable to every religion. Additionally Bogard says that the night sky has inspired countless numbers of philosophers, artists, and stargazers for millennia. Bogard then gives a scientific case that shows why natural darkness is essential to humans.

He points to the necessity of darkness in producing melatonin, a hormone that helps prevent certain cancers from developing in the human body. Bogard then concludes his argument that darkness is essential to human well-being by analyzing sleep. He first makes the obvious claim that darkness is essential for sleep.

Then, he talks about the negative health effects of sleep disorders. He notes that there are a variety of nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, fish, mammals, insects, and reptiles worldwide. He gives two specific, well-known examples of these species; these discussed the species of North American birds that migrate at night and the sea turtles that lay their eggs on the shore at night. He also gives a couple of lesser-known examples, involving bats and moths that show the positive actions that some nocturnal animals perform.

He then concludes his argument for nocturnal darkness necessary to nature with persuasion, saying that removing natural darkness would essentially destroy an ecology that took billions of years to develop. Here, Bogard uses scientific fact to prove that natural darkness is a key to nature and ecology.

Paul Bogard supports the preservation of natural darkness. He uses an argument to support his position that has three primary points—benefit to humans, need for humans and need for nature. The writer provides various details from the text that support these points. The writer also sees the connection between darkness as a source of solitude and it inspiring countless numbers of philosophers, artists, and stargazers for millennia. The writer instead consistently lapses into summary.

Overall, the response demonstrates inadequate analysis. This mostly cohesive response demonstrates effective use and control of language. The writer presents an effective introduction with a clear central claim that lays out the three points discussed in the response In order to prove the need for natural darkness, Bogard divides his argument into three main topics, saying that natural darkness is beneficial to humans, essential to humans, and essential to the ecosystem.

The response also includes an generally effective conclusion that summarizes rather than advances the essay Paul Bogard supports the preservation of natural darkness. He uses an argument to support his position that has three primary points—benefit to humans, need for humans and need for nature although the conclusion is not marked off by a paragraph break. The response is organized clearly around the three points identified in the introduction, and each body paragraph stays on-topic.

The writer also demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. Sentence structure tends to be repetitive and simple, however. For example, at or near the end of each body paragraph, the writer restates the point that introduces that paragraph Bogard then gives a scientific case that shows why natural darkness is essential to humans Bogard uses scientific evidence to support his belief in the preservation of natural darkness.

Although the writing in this response is proficient, it does not demonstrate the sentence variety, precise word choice, or highly effective progression of ideas that is expected at the advanced level. Paul Bogard, a respected and passionate writer, offers a convincing argument on the importance of allowing more darkness to fill the earth for distinct health and ecological reasons.

With light providing as such a huge factor in daily life, we sometimes forget that darkness can have more healing abilities, and allows nature to return to a nonartificial, primitive state. Bogard uses personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to deliver a powerful argument. Throughout the passage, Bogard remains nostalgic about his childhood: I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars Bogard knows the power of darkness and through his childhood memories, we lean our ears to listen to him.

Even though credibility makes many appearences throughout the passage, it would have no real meaning without evoking emotion. We finally see the true importance of allowing our world to temporarily succumb to darkness.

Through the emotion Bogard evokes, we suddenly feel defensive in preserving the darkness for the sake of our mental and physical health. Bogard even makes us think about the future generations: Who knows what this vision of the night sky must inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? In order to achieve proper credibility and stir emotion, undeniable facts must reside in passage.

Bogard has completed his research, and uses it to further his case: Bogard builds up our world, and then breaks it down in our minds with his writing: We can still save our world according to Bogard.

We must see the strength and beauty in the darkness, and remember how our world survived without lights. Light can be acceptable, but too much of it can prove worse than permanent darkness.

The writer captures the central idea of the source passage the importance of allowing more darkness to fill the earth for distinct health and ecological reasons and accurately quotes and paraphrases many important details from the passage. Moreover, the writer demonstrates an understanding of how these ideas and details interrelate. Bogard extends the facts to offer various solutions. The response is free of errors of fact and interpretation.

Overall, this response demonstrates advanced reading comprehension. The writer demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task by analyzing three ways Bogard builds his argument personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to deliver a powerful argument.

The writer demonstrates highly effective use and command of language in this cohesive response. The response includes a precise central claim Bogard uses personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to deliver a powerful argument , and each of the subsequent paragraphs remains focused on one of the topics set forth in that central claim.

There is a deliberate progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the response. Moreover, the response demonstrates precise word choice and sophisticated turns of phrase temporarily succumb to darkness , remains nostalgic about his childhood , dissolves any doubt.

The concluding paragraph develops the essay rather than just restating what has been said and is also successful for its precise word choice and complex sentence structures We must see the strength and beauty in the darkness, and remember how our world survived without lights.

Although there are occasional missteps where the writer overreaches with language In order to achieve proper credibility and stir emotion, undeniable facts must reside in the passage , overall, this response demonstrates advanced writing skill. He effectively builds his argument by using a personal anecdote, allusions to art and history, and rhetorical questions.

By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter about night darkness, the author means to establish the potential for beauty, glamour, and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine darkness can possess. This urges the readers to weigh the disadvantages of our world consumed by unnatural, vapid lighting. He then goes on to state how Paris has taken steps to exercise more sustainable lighting practices.

This furthers his line of argumentation because it shows how steps can be and are being taken to preserve natural darkness. It shows that even a city that is literally famous for being constantly lit can practically address light pollution in a manner that preserves the beauty of both the city itself and the universe as a whole.

Finally, Bogard makes subtle yet efficient use of rhetorical questioning to persuade his audience that natural darkness preservation is essential. By asking this question, Bogard draws out heartfelt ponderance from his readers about the affecting power of an untainted night sky. This strategy is definitively an appeal to pathos, forcing the audience to directly face an emotionally-charged inquiry that will surely spur some kind of response.

By doing this, Bogard develops his argument, adding gutthral power to the idea that the issue of maintaining natural darkness is relevant and multifaceted. Writing as a reaction to his disappointment that artificial light has largely permeated the prescence of natural darkness, Paul Bogard argues that we must preserve true, unaffected darkness. He builds this claim by making use of a personal anecdote, allusions, and rhetorical questioning.

This response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text through skillful use of paraphrases and direct quotations. The response is also free of errors of fact or interpretation. Overall, the response demonstrates advanced reading comprehension. This response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.

For example, the writer offers a possible reason for why Bogard chose to open his argument with a personal anecdote, and is also able to describe the overall effect of that choice on his audience In telling this brief anecdote, Bogard challenges the audience to remember a time where they could fully amass themselves in natural darkness void of artificial light. By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter This type of insightful analysis is evident throughout the response and indicates advanced analytical skill.

The response is cohesive and demonstrates highly effective use and command of language. There is a clear, deliberate progression of ideas within paragraphs and throughout the response.

There is a consistent use of both precise word choice and well-chosen turns of phrase the natural magnificence of stars in a dark sky is definite , our world consumed by unnatural, vapid lighting , the affecting power of an untainted night sky.

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Highlights This study examined students’ problems with argumentation in essay writing. The results show academics’ and students’ difficulties with conceptualising argument. Consequently, the instruction given to students is vague and inconsistent. A framework for teaching writing which puts argumentation at the centre is proposed.

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An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". It .

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