During this stage there is an increase in activity in the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system SAM and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis HPA. These are the 2 main pathways. Adrenaline and Noradrenalin is then produced. The other pathway, HPA, is when the hypothalamus is stimulated and messages are sent to the pituitary gland and adrenocorticotrophic hormone ACTH is released into the bloodstream.
This then stimulates the Adrenal Cortex which release which releases corticosteroids. It is when the body is adapting to the demands of the environment. It can be when the body is in short term stress or prolonged stress.
Also, the body tries to reabsorb excess resources such as coritsol, glucose, adrenaline or noradrenalin. However, in chronic stress, hormones are still above baseline levels and cortisol production increases in the body. This effects the immune system because number of white cell production is reduced and the stage may carry on to the final stage. This only happens when stress is prolonged, demands of the body exceed the supply and the other 2 stages are ineffective.
The ANS symptoms reappear which are increased heart rate, sweating, muscle tension, breathing faster, salivation decreasing, pupils dilating and so on. Long-term physical effects of this are the increase in chance of stress related diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease and production of hormones such as testosterone and progesterone decreases.
He notified the importance and effects of stress medically and in diseases whilst other researchers have not been able to properly prove the negative effects of chronic stress. The varying stressors produced different patterns of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol secreted in the body.
It must also be criticized that Selye used non-humans rats for his research on human response to stress. This could have lead to some of his errors as rats may not respond in the same psychological way as humans. He may have used rats for ethical purposes and even if humans were used for the research, it could be argued that it was for medical purposes so it could not have been unethical anyway. Finally it has to be taken in account that the tests Selye carried out may not necessarily have the same outcomes in pattern for all people as all people have individual differences.
Therefore the way in which one person reacts to one stress may vary from the way another person may react to the same stressor. Different levels of hormones may be produced and the patterns may differ with different people due to how they perceive and cope with the stress. How are people getting on with their psychology A2 coursework? A2 psychology coursework results section? Answer Questions About statistics..? Extremely unsatisfied with my Appearance?
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